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Peru in FAO Fishing Area 87

ILLEGAL FISHING AND MIGRATORY RESOURCES: ANALYSIS OF PERU'S FISHING LAW

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Friday, September 23, 2022, 14:00 (GMT + 9)

The Fishing Law of Peru was sanctioned by Law 25,977 of December 7, 1992 and Supreme Decree 012-2001-PE.

This country represents 8% of world catches and is number one in Latin America, which is why it is very important what it legislates in terms of fishing regulation. Its Regulatory Decree is a compendium where the infractions are detailed in detail, a large part of which, in our opinion, could be classified as ILLEGAL FISHING.

Article 1 clearly defines the political objective of fishing activity in Peru when it states: "to promote its sustained development as a source of food, employment and income and to ensure responsible use of hydrobiological resources, optimizing economic benefits, in harmony with the preservation of the environment and the conservation of biodiversity" and, makes clear the ownership and regulation of fishing resources when it says in its Article 2: "The hydrobiological resources contained in the jurisdictional waters of Peru are the heritage of the Nation (...) It is up to the State to regulate the comprehensive management and rational exploitation of said resources, considering that the fishing activity is of national interest.”

The Law in its Article 3 indicates that it promotes both Peruvian and foreign investment and, among other things, specifies: "optimizing the use of hydrobiological resources through obtaining a fishery product with greater added value...", since Otherwise, foreign companies establish themselves in Latin American and Caribbean countries for the sole purpose of obtaining the resources that they transform and market in their countries of origin, in such a way that, in addition to the profits, the national labor ends up transferring to consumer countries; At the same time, those countries that do not have a developed naval industry end up acquiring ships in third countries. That is to say, they have the markets and the raw materials are made in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

Article 5 refers to the fact that fishing is a permanent activity of a discontinuous nature, due to the random nature of the hydrobiological resources and, it is true, that the capture times and the perishable nature of the raw materials when fresh products are processed in industrial plants can generate a labor discontinuity. There are some experiences from decades ago in Argentina through the formation of temporary unions of companies that can solve this problem very efficiently. Now, well, the random nature that is mentioned has been largely resolved with technology and should be absolutely limited if the country achieves an efficient administration of the ecosystem, whose certainties will be able to be precisely determined if the administration of the jurisdiction of the Coastal State is added to the administration on the high seas, where controls are lax or non-existent on foreign ships by the flag States, and agreements must be reached between them and the coastal States. It is essential for this to have a certain control over migratory resources and populations, otherwise, it will be impossible to have a more predictable resource, something that the law advances in articles 6 and 7. In the latter, it refers especially to the fact that "The regulations adopted by the State to ensure the conservation and rational exploitation of hydrobiological resources in jurisdictional waters, may be applied beyond 200 nautical miles, to those multi-zonal resources that migrate to adjacent waters or that they come from these towards the coast due to their food association with other marine resources or because they correspond to breeding or rearing habitats. Peru will promote the adoption of international agreements and mechanisms in order to ensure compliance with such regulations by other States, subject to the principles of responsible fishing. The belonging of migratory resources is defined here when they come from national jurisdiction and the need to intervene. We would change the “may be applied” for the “must be applied” and, by the way, the coastal State having the preferential role in the agreements between States that may be carried out or, the strict control when the agreements are between companies. Under adequate control, these latter agreements tend to be more interesting, because the State, as the owner of the resource, once the clauses have been agreed and approved, has an easier time regulating the Agreement and canceling it when the conditions are not met; Contrary to what happens, with the Agreements between States where it is very difficult to denounce it, for reasons that go beyond the main purpose of the Agreement and have to do with general trade between countries and other political reasons.

Peruvian fishermen catch giant squid (dosidicus gigas) using manual line `jigger' 

It is also important, what is prescribed in Article 8: «The extractive activity by vessels of foreign flag will be their a very important part for importers and, the Certification by the national organisms strengthens the quality and revaluation of the products and their positioning in the international and national market.

The Law reserves in its articles 32º to 36º a regime for the promotion of artisanal activities and, this, is important, since, in the case of a resource owned by the State, its sustainable distribution should be as wide as possible. It is one of the obligations of the Enforcement Authority, especially when you want to promote internal consumption.

Article 44 defines: «Concessions, authorizations and permits are specific rights that the Ministry of Production grants a fixed term for the development of fishing activities (...) In case of non-compliance, the Ministry, through the corresponding technical bodies, issues the administrative resolution of expiration of the granted right that allows its reversion to the State, prior to the start of the respective administrative procedure…”. Perhaps the companies should bear this article very much in mind: fishing is a State resource and its extraction is a temporary concession, and not a personal asset that can be exploited at its own discretion.

Article 47 provides that "The operations of foreign-flagged fishing vessels in Peruvian jurisdictional waters may only be carried out on the surplus of the catch", an issue that is already regulated by UNCLOS despite the fact that Peru is not a signatory to that Convention, although in Article 48 specifies: «b) When foreign-flagged vessels have been contracted by Peruvian companies to extract those hydrobiological resources determined by the Ministry of Fisheries; c) For the fishing of resources of opportunity, or highly migratory or those other underexploited that the Ministry of Fisheries determines, through the payment of rights for fishing permits; d) By virtue of fishing agreements entered into by Peru with other States or communities of States, for the fishing of surplus fishing resources not used by the existing fleet in the country; e) Through the signing of framework agreements between the Ministry of Fisheries and foreign private entities, for the fishing of highly migratory, opportunity or underexploited species”. Matter perfected in Articles 49º and 50º supplementary or complementary to that carried out by the existing fleet in the country, and will be subject to the conditions established in this Law and its Regulations, as well as in the international agreements that Peru celebrates on the matter, which may not contravene the requirements commonly demanded by Peruvian legislation. Regarding surplus resources, which the Peruvian fleet cannot extract and/or process and/or does not have the market for their placement, controlled extraction agreements with third countries may be interesting. Now, we should not forget that the extraction is the basic step of the fishing activity and, it occupies a reduced number of crew members in relation to those who use the industrial process and added value on land, an issue, which is very well defined in the three first articles of the law.

Article 11 indicates who is the one that establishes the fishing order and defines that this function will be fulfilled by the Ministry of Fisheries, a hierarchical level that is very important, because the function is complex, where issues related to the exploitation of maritime resources, their industrialization, export and/or internal consumption; research, sustainability and distribution of resources and international negotiations, some of which are defined in Article 12, where it refers to the following: "The management systems (...) must consider, as the case may be, regimes of access, capture total permissible, magnitude of the fishing effort, closed periods, fishing seasons, minimum catch sizes, prohibited or reserve zones, gear, gear, methods and fishing systems, as well as the necessary monitoring, control and surveillance actions... ».

Artisanal fisherman with his giant squid catch by hand

In Article 17, it indicates that "the Ministry of Fisheries will allocate, from its own resources and for scientific and technological research and training purposes, a percentage of the rights that are levied on the granting of concessions, authorizations, fishing permits and licenses" and , this seems to indicate something that should be obvious when granting concessions for the capture of State resources, where the value of the canon, license, quota or authorization, depending on the case, should contemplate a share-quota destined for investigation and defense , security and surveillance of catches. In Peru, in addition, through Article 18, it promotes a Foundation to "encourage the financing and development of scientific and technological research and fishing training."

In Article 21 "The State promotes, preferably, the extractive activities of hydrobiological resources destined for direct human consumption" and it is interesting to highlight it, because fish is an exceptional food provider of essential amino acids and unsaturated fats that are central in a healthy diet. ; therefore, understand it, in a phenomenal advance. If we add that in domestic consumption all the added value remains in the country, this is only a very important state policy and, in this sense, consumption in Peru is slightly below the world average with about 17.5 kg per capita/year (2020) and above consumption in Latin America and the Caribbean. And this is not easy, because international demand drives and the trend is to allocate catches for export and, although we do not know the country's strategy in this regard, consumption must be encouraged and, sometimes, taxes reduced. etc. that make the arrival of this extraordinary product more expensive to the lower and lower middle sectors that have fewer resources to make these extraordinary proteins, incorporating them into the national diet.

In Articles 24 to 26, the legislation provides that the vessels that are incorporated have the preservation elements and the most modern technology, whether national or foreign. This is central to optimizing the effort, guaranteeing the original quality of the catches and ensuring work on board.

By Article 31 «Commercial quality control and certification services for fishery products can be provided by any national or foreign company, duly authorized by the National Institute for the Defense of Competition and the Protection of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI). )». Although it is essential to control the quality of the products and certify it, it seems to us that it is a task, just like that of the sanitary police, that must be carried out by State agencies, since certification by foreign private companies can become a a strange restriction for trade, a task that is already carried out by professionals from importing companies. In our opinion, the official task of national quality control must be trained and prioritized, so that its certifications generate confidence in the international buyer, and this is necessary in almost all public organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. The trust of a very important part for the importers and the Certification by the national organisms strengthens the quality and revaluation of the products and their positioning in the international and national market.

Peruvian artisanal fishermen accommodating the `jibia' (giant squid - dosidicus gigas)

The Law reserves in its articles 32º to 36º a regime for the promotion of artisanal activities and, this, is important, since, in the case of a resource owned by the State, its sustainable distribution should be as wide as possible. It is one of the obligations of the Enforcement Authority, especially when you want to promote internal consumption.

Article 44 defines: "Concessions, authorizations and permits are specific rights that the Ministry of Production grants for a specified period for the development of fishing activities (...) In case of non-compliance, the Ministry, through the technical bodies corresponding, dictates the administrative resolution of expiration of the right granted that allows its reversion to the State, prior to the initiation of the respective administrative procedure...». Perhaps the companies should bear this article very much in mind: fishing is a State resource and its extraction is a temporary concession, and not a personal asset that can be exploited at its own discretion.

Article 47 provides that "The operations of foreign-flagged fishing vessels in Peruvian jurisdictional waters may only be carried out on the surplus of the catch", an issue that is already regulated by UNCLOS despite the fact that Peru is not a signatory to that Convention, although in Article 48 specifies: «b) When foreign-flagged vessels have been contracted by Peruvian companies to extract those hydrobiological resources determined by the Ministry of Fisheries; c) For the fishing of resources of opportunity, or highly migratory or those other underexploited that the Ministry of Fisheries determines, through the payment of rights for fishing permits; d) By virtue of fishing agreements entered into by Peru with other States or communities of States, for the fishing of surplus fishing resources not used by the existing fleet in the country; e) Through the signing of framework agreements between the Ministry of Fisheries and foreign private entities, for the fishing of highly migratory, opportunity or underexploited species”. Matter perfected in Articles 49º and 50º.

We have already mentioned that we prefer Agreements between States or between companies under State control and it will always be, in our opinion, more interesting for national companies to exploit the resource, so that foreign companies do not have the two ends of the skein: the resource and the market, in addition to having those a greater belonging that makes them continue, even in adversity, especially when the business of national companies is to generate value and not just an extractive issue, as This usually happens with foreign vessels that fish from a distance.

Chinese jigging vessel working outside EEZ of Peru (Photo: Greenpeace)

It may also be important to establish the condition for foreign shipowners that, in the face of restrictions based on biological reasons, the measures could reach them in a particular way and not all the fishing companies located in the country.

The establishment of a National Fisheries Development Fund “to promote, execute and technically, economically and financially support the priority development of maritime and continental artisanal fishing activity, as well as fishing and aquaculture activities in general, mainly in infrastructure aspects for the development and distribution of fishery resources» established in articles 58º and 59º is important for the development of the activity, especially the artisanal one, which often needs support for technological and commercial development, in order to achieve a “ Fishing Economic Unit” that gives sustainability to its activity. It is likely that the resources for the Fund, indicated in Article 60, may be added to those derived from fishing rights and funds from non-reimbursable credits from international organizations, in addition to the other provisions indicated in Articles 61 and 62. and the benefits derived from Article 63º.

Faced with the growing ILLEGAL FISHING by foreign vessels, we consider the role of the Ministry of Defense and Interior very important, provided for in Articles 69º, 70º, 72º and 73º; both in the control of fishing vessels, and in the functions inherent to the safety of human life at sea and the protection of the marine environment, as well as the participation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided for in Article 75 regarding the Agreements with other States, although in all cases the Ministry of Fisheries, which is the one with the greatest knowledge of the matter, should have preeminence.

Article 76 details a long list of prohibited activities that in general, they are part of almost all fishing laws and that we have made compatible with the details of activities that we qualify as ILLEGAL FISHING; however, it is worth noting that point 8) prohibits «Transshipping the product of the fishery or disposing of it without prior authorization before arriving at port» and this is important because it is frequent that through transshipments outside port are "laundered" ILLEGAL FISHING operations.

Chinese squid jigger during transshipment at high sea

With regard to sanctions, Article 78 provides for sanctions of: a) Fine; b) Suspension of the concession, authorization, permit or license; c) Confiscation; d) Definitive cancellation of the concession, authorization, permit or license and, in Article 79º, specifies that: «Any infraction will be sanctioned administratively, without prejudice to the civil or criminal actions that may take place». Although the Fishing Law does not foresee penal sanctions, the Supreme Decree does in Article 127º, which indicates: «In the event that, as a consequence of the evaluation of the denounced infraction, reasonable indications arise that may lead one to suppose that the conduct of the alleged offender can be classified as a criminal offense" and also, Article 309 of the Penal Code of Peru that penalizes with prison the illegal extraction of aquatic species: «Whoever extracts species of aquatic flora or fauna in times, quantities and areas that are prohibited or closed or uses prohibited fishing or hunting procedures, will be punished with a custodial sentence of not less than one nor more of three years”.

On the other hand, with respect to seizures, Article 80 states that "it will deliver the seized products to the Municipalities of the jurisdiction, to charitable institutions or others of a social nature" which would indicate that this sanction or accessory would not apply to vessels and this does not cease to be a contradiction with international legislation that promotes the preparation of lists of vessels that have participated in ILLEGAL FISHING actions. This, without prejudice to the fact that, as we have said, we promote the administrative and criminal sanction of those responsible and not of the vessels that are a mere tool used to prey on fishing resources.

Article 3 of Supreme Decree 012-2001-PE of 3/13/2001 regulating the General Fisheries Law indicates that: “hydrobiological resources, due to their condition as patrimonial assets of the Nation, are administered by the State, which must participate in the benefits produced by its use (...) 3.2. The expenses that the State makes to guarantee the conservation and responsible use of hydrobiological resources, including the costs of research, surveillance, control and planning of the development of fisheries, constitute part of the exploitation costs of renewable resources and, consequently, are covered with the payment of fishing rights and rights for the use of aquaculture concessions and through other financing mechanisms, which may include resources from the private sector» (Numeral modified by article 5 of Supreme Decree 029-2005 , 12/29/2005). Three aspects of this article are very important and worth highlighting. In the first place, it reiterates that the hydrobiological resources are patrimonial assets of the Nation, that is to say that the State is the administrator and concessions the exploitation. Secondly, for this reason -and this is very novel- it indicates that "the State must participate in the benefits produced by its use" (...) and, although participation mechanisms are not made explicit, it may be that the Its scope is limited, at least until now, to the collection of rights to capture and others and, thirdly, it indicates that: "the expenses that the State makes to guarantee the conservation and responsible use of hydrobiological resources, including the costs of research, surveillance, control and planning of the development of fisheries, constitute part of the exploitation costs of renewable resources and, consequently, are covered with the payment of fishing rights (...) and through other financing mechanisms, the that may include resources from the private sector» that is, it breaks with the paradigm of fisheries administrations in general, where the calculation of fishing rights results from a percentage value of the captured species (Article 45 of the regulatory Supreme Decree), which means that the State is not only a partner of the employer, but also adds the costs of research, surveillance, control and development of fisheries and, the latter seems very reasonable, because these are services that the State provides to the concessionaire so that it can carry out its activity, to which port and customs services, etc., are surely added. Surely this would require a very detailed cost analysis and fairness when collecting rights that is directly related to the volume granted in favor of large, medium and small entrepreneurs and/or artisanal fishermen.

We have already referred to the importance of a Ministry of Fisheries, as provided for in Article 4, with competence in fisheries and aquaculture matters, and it is a very important advance to coordinate its activity with areas that are closely linked and need to work in a synergistic, such as ports, the naval fishing industry, maritime transport, defense and security, oil and mining operations at sea, etc.

With regard to matters relating to the Fisheries Regulation, it is interesting to note in Article 12, subsection 12.5, that in the cases of "owners of fishing vessels not damaged, which are subject to substitution of equal storage capacity, they must certify before the Ministry of Production the express certification that proves the destruction or scrapping, or the export of the substituted non-damaged vessels, issued by the maritime authority or in case of export with the corresponding documentation (...) It will be cause for the expiration of the granted fishing permit, failing to comply with present the aforementioned certification...». This is important, because it reduces the chances of using decommissioned ships and permits and it complies with the shipowner's obligation to scrap ships out of use that use spaces in ports and docks.

What has been said is complemented by the provisions of Article 14 (modified by Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 015-2007 of 8/4/2007). Regarding the obligation to publish the vessels authorized to carry out extractive activities, which makes available to all current and granted authorizations.

In Article 32, the law establishes the requirement that vessels have systems or means of preserving products and indicates in subsection 32.2 that “fishing vessels for direct human consumption greater than one hundred (100) metric tons of hold capacity , which allocate their catches to processing plants for direct human consumption, may have a fishing permit as long as they have CSW (Chilled Sea Water) or RSW (Chilled Sea Water) systems or another system that guarantees the optimum quality of the captured product. ».

Article 33 refers to the term of validity of fishing permits, although the years are not specified and, in subsection 33.5, it is indicated that “For foreign-flagged fishing vessels, the term will be determined in each case based on the resource authorized and shall not be older than one year. Regarding the change of ownership of the national flag fishing permit, Article 34, subsection 34.1 indicates that «The transfer of ownership or possession of the national flag fishing vessels during the validity of the corresponding fishing permit, enables the acquirer to access the ownership of said permit under the same terms and conditions in which it was granted", which could be indicating that the rights expire with the expiration of the validity of the permit granted to the original owner.

Chinese distant fleet

Article 36 indicates that "Authorizations to increase the fleet of national flag vessels, research authorizations for national or foreign flag fishing vessels, as well as fishing permits for shipowners operating foreign flag vessels, are non-transferable."

Article 38, and specifically subsection 38.1, states that: "The authorizations to increase the fleet and the fishing permits, as well as the hydrobiological resources to which access is granted through these rights, are indivisible and may not be unfolded (...) except for: a) To replace the hold capacity differential generated in the process of incorporating the RSW or CSW on-board preservation system, in accordance with the resolution that granted the respective fishing permit...". In this regard, it is very important to improve, promote and even subsidize the use of state-of-the-art technology aimed at capturing with vessels that preserve the fresh product, not only because of their aptitude in terms of quality, but also because they generate more national labor than freezer ships and factories.

Although it escapes the theme of this writing, it is interesting to highlight what Article 62º prescribes regarding the support of artisanal fishing, for which the Ministry of Fisheries, through the National Fund for Fisheries Development (FONDEPES), «promotes and develops the construction of basic infrastructure and equipment for the development of the artisanal fishery, through the delivery in administration, use or other legal modality, of the following assets: a) Docks, landing sites and other landing systems; b) Modules for handling, washing and filleting fish; c) Plants or ice or cold chambers, as well as isothermal trucks and other refrigerated transport vehicles; and, d) Transformation or primary processing plants and other equipment, such as smokers and dryers”, with which “cooperative systems” are promoted that facilitate their activity, development and the sustainability of small enterprises, which is complemented with what provided for in Article 64º and articles 45º and 54º of the Law where "individuals and legal entities dedicated to artisanal fishing activity are exempt from the payment of rights for concessions, authorizations, fishing permits and licenses, after verifying the condition of the shipowner or artisanal company”.

Regarding the granting of fishing permits for foreign-flagged vessels indicated in Article 66, subsection 66.1 in the extraction of opportunity resources, highly migratory or others in accordance with the provisions of articles 47 and 48 of the Law, they may request permission to fishing for up to one non-renewable year. It is not clarified here whether this permit is comprehensive with respect to fishing for migratory species in the EEZ and on the high seas, and permits should not be granted to companies to fish in the EEZ if other vessels of the same company are fishing on the high seas without an agreement. with the coastal state.

Article 68 indicates that "Owners of foreign-flagged fishing vessels operating in Peruvian jurisdictional waters are required to have the Satellite Tracking System on their vessels, unless a Ministerial Resolution exempts fishing vessel owners from this obligation. highly migratory fisheries. This practice equalizes foreign ships with national ones as indicated in Articles 115º to 117º. Today it is an elementary tool to verify the presence of vessels and it would be interesting for it to be extensive and enforceable when permits are granted and agreements are signed to fish both in the EEZ and on the high seas, having to be permanently active, in addition to equipping that allow having images to avoid discards and other prohibited practices.

Article 69 establishes the obligation for foreign-flagged fishing vessels to carry on board a technical-scientific observer appointed by IMARPE, and we understand that these observers, with or without an assigned function as inspectors, are naturally obliged to report any practice that violates the current legislation.

The provisions of Article 71 subsection 71.1 and 7.3. that the transshipment of hydrobiological resources from foreign-flagged vessels must only be carried out in a bay or port and that these must be carried out with the presence of inspectors is one of the tools to avoid ILLEGAL FISHING, the same as what is established in Article 74 regarding to foreign vessels leaving national jurisdiction.

Photo: IUU Skylight

In Article 76, subsection 76.1, it is established that “The competent authority in environmental matters for fishing and aquaculture activities is the Ministry of Fisheries and especially in subsection 76.2, where it specifies the scope of who determines the policies for the protection of the marine environment, the conservation of hydrobiological resources, the environmental impact and the prevention of contamination and, for this purpose, as indicated in Article 77, a National Directorate of the Environment. In principle, we understand this unification of competencies in the fisheries body to be important, since there are countries, such as Argentina, where environmental participation is very strong on the part of the Ministry of Environmental Development, which even promotes Marine Protected Areas, without a policy is carried out that reconciles productive interests and environmental care in a sustainable and sustainable way.

The Supreme Decree describes in several articles the methodologies and procedures related to environmental care and in Articles 100º to 102º regarding the powers of control and surveillance of the Directorate of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of the Ministry of Fisheries and, of the obligations of the users. In this regard, it would be convenient to advance, through the necessary agreements, in operations on the high seas that are not usually controlled and affect the ecosystem.

Articles 103º to 108º refer to the inspections and inspectors destined to guarantee the fulfillment of the regulation. In this regard, it is very important, as indicated in subsection 104.1, that "inspectors must be duly trained specialized professionals in the fishing field, the same ones who will be periodically evaluated, selected and accredited" because they are complex tasks that not only require "aptitude" but also also "attitude"; be charged with sufficient authority to proceed with the drafting of inspection records; verification; request the assistance of the public force; intervene merchandise; Fishing arts;

boats, etc. until the subsequent administrative process, which may conclude with the application of fines, confiscations, etc. and, as referred to in Article 106, oblige the captain of the vessels to provide all the information necessary for the performance of his function, and this task will be carried out, as indicated in Article 107, in an “unexpected” manner, that is, without prior notice. and, in the case of foreign vessels, as Article 108º specifies, all expenses, including translation, will be borne by the shipowners. The State, in the case of fishing agreements for migratory species on the high seas, must have inspectors trained in matters of defense and security to board ships.

Regarding the procedures for the granting of concessions, authorizations, fishing permits and licenses, Article 119 refers to the legal stability of the investments and in particular establishes that "the agreements will have a term of no more than 10 years and does not mean in any way a restriction on the authority of the administration to issue subsequent provisions due to measures of a biological or environmental nature recommended by IMARPE or the National Directorate of the Environment. Ten years seem like a sufficient time for the concessionaires and it is an adequate time for the Enforcement Authority to duly assess whether the concessionaire complies with the exploitation contract within the framework of the policy established by law without wasting time with an erroneous distribution. or unsustainable.

The infractions according to Article 126º are of an administrative nature, however, as we have said, in Article 127º it is indicated that «In the event that, as a result of the evaluation of the reported infraction, reasonable indications arise that may lead one to suppose that the conduct of the alleged offender can be typified as a criminal offense” and consequently apply arrest to those responsible for ILLEGAL FISHING.

 

Dr. Cesar Augusto Lerena

South Atlantic and Fisheries Expert – Former Secretary of State

President of the Agustina Lerena Foundation1

President Center for Studies on Latin American Fisheries (CESPEL)2.

Author of "Illegal Fishing and Migratory Fishing Resources Originating from the Coastal States of Latin America and the Caribbean" (2022)

(1) Founded on 10/21/2002; (2) Founded on 2/4/1989

September 2022 (ISBN 978-987-29323-9-8)

Relaed News:

[email protected]
www.seafood.media

 


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UPS - United Parcel Service, Inc. - Headquarters
Brim ehf (formerly HB Grandi Ltd) - Headquarters
Hamburg Süd Group - (Headquearters)
Armadora Pereira S.A. - Grupo Pereira Headquarters
Costa Meeresspezialitäten GmbH & Co. KG
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Headquarters)
Mowi ASA (formerly Marine Harvest ASA) - Headquarters
Marubeni Europe Plc -UK-
Findus Ltd
Icom Inc. (Headquarter)
WWF Centroamerica
Oceana Group Limited
The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Ajinomoto Co., Inc. - Headquarters
Friosur S.A. - Headquarters
Cargill, Incorporated - Global Headquarters
Benihana Inc.
Leardini Pescados Ltda
CJ Corporation  - Group Headquarters
Greenpeace International - The Netherlands | Headquarters
David Suzuki Foundation
Fisheries and Oceans Canada -Communications Branch-
Mitsui & Co.,Ltd - Headquarters
NOREBO Group (former Ocean Trawlers Group)
Natori Co., Ltd.
Carrefour Supermarket - Headquarters
FedEx Corporation - Headquarters
Cooke Inc. - Group Headquarters
AKBM - Aker BioMarine ASA
Seafood Choices Alliance -Headquarter-
Austevoll Seafood ASA
Walmart | Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (Supermarket) - Headquarters
New Japan Radio Co.Ltd (JRC) -Head Office-
Gulfstream JSC
Marine Stewardship Council - MSC Worldwide Headquarters
Royal Dutch Shell plc (Headquarter)
Genki Sushi Co.,Ltd -Headquarter-
Iceland Pelagic ehf
AXA Assistance Argentina S.A.
Caterpillar Inc. - Headquarters
Tiger Brands Limited
SeaChoice
National Geographic Society
AmazonFresh, LLC - AmazonFresh

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